The Department of Pathology and laboratory medicine(DPLM) plays a crucial role in the healthcare ecosystem, contributing significantly to patient care, disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and medical research.

  • Haematology
  • Biochemistry
  • Blood banking
  • Microbiology and Clinical Pathology
  • STI immunology
  • Cytology
  • Histopathology

The DPLM of ERRH is in line with the Quality Management System (QMS) of the laboratory as per the ISO 15189:2012 and offers the following diagnostic services to its clients:

The DPLM of ERRH has a total of 29 laboratory staffs including a Pathologist and three Laboratory Officer.

Units and services provided.

  1. Haematology.

The Haematology unit serves as a referral centre for all other haematology laboratories in the eastern districts for the confirmation of various haematological disorders.  It has an advanced and high quality laboratory which provides a 24 hr service with accurate and precise laboratory reports.

Tests carried out

  • CBC
  • ESR
  • PT/INR
  • PBS
  • Bone marrow

The sophisticated equipments include: Elite 580(Two set), Humanclot Pro Analysers, which are validated and maintained by running a quality control test every morning. The reporting system is integrated with the Electronic Patient Information System (ePIS) which enables us to reduce errors and turnaround time. Quality control and Quality Assurance are strictly implemented.

All the blood reports are dispatched on the same day of blood collection except for PBS.

2. Biochemistry

Biochemistry section carries out a large number of blood and body fluid tests by automated MISPA Nano plus (Two set), Elite electrolyte analyser. Tests performances are closely monitored and quality controlled on daily basis which assures quality report for the patients. The section provides biochemistry tests services 24×7 round the clock and all reports are dispatched on a same day of blood collection by ePIS.

 Biochemistry test
1.Blood glucose ( random, fasting, postprandial)14.Body fluid analysis (glucose, enzymes)
2.OGTT15.Serum magnesium
3.HbA1c16.Serum phosphate
4.Renal Function Test (urea, creatinine, Na, K, Cl)17.Serum amylase
5.Uric Acid18.ASO
6.Liver Function test (AST, ALT, ALP, T.bil, D.bil)19.RF
8.Total protein, albumin and globulin21.24hr urine protein and creatinine
9.Lipid profile (T.chol, TG, HDL, LDL)
10.Cardiac enzymes (CPK, LDH)
11.Serum iron
13.Serum calcium

3. Blood banking

Blood Bank section which is categorized under Drugs Regulatory Authority (DRA) involves in collection, testing, storing, and issuing blood and blood products. The bank provides 24×7 services through the week. To provide a consistent, reliable and safe blood and blood products, the daily internal quality control for the reagents are carried out along with the calibration and maintenance of the equipment’s. The service provided by blood bank includes;

  • Blood grouping.
  • Cross matching
  • Blood donor screening (Haemoglobin, blood pressure, TTI and history)
  • Blood donor phlebotomy 
  • Management of donor transfusion reaction
  • Preparation of various blood products.
  • Issue of blood and blood products.
  • Conduct monthly mobile blood donation campaign.

4. Microbiology and clinical pathology.

The Microbiology section receives orders for routine culture tests from wards, OPD and other districts of eastern region. The section is sub divided into 3 different units for smooth functioning and quality service delivery. Most test reports are dispatched on the same day of sample collection except culture reports which takes 3 days; and H.pylori tests are conducted once in a week i.e Saturday 

Available testsBacteriology Unit
Culture and sensitivity of all Samples  (Urine, Sputum , Body Fluids, Blood, stool)Streak plate and Disc Diffusion method. 
Gram stain Using Crystal violet and safranin
Drinking water quality testing Membrane filtration technique
Purified protein derivative (TB skin test) 
Leprosy test.Using Light Microscope
 TB unit
TB microscopy for Pulmonary and Extra pulmonary samples Fluorescence Microscopy and Gene-Expert. 
Hensen Using Light Microscope
Fungal scrapping KOH
TB Culture and drug sensitivity testingSamples Shipment to RCDC
 Clinical Parasitology
Routine urine analysis including glucose ,albumin and ketone detectionDipstick and Microscopy
Routine Stool analysis Wet mount 
Stool OBTUsing Rapid test kits
H.Pylori antigen detection in stool samples Using ELISA and Rapid test method
Semen Analysis  

5. STI and Immunology

The STI and Immunology unit carries out a large array of routine and special immunology tests by automation analysers to accommodate the high workload. Tests performed are closely monitored and quality controlled. Cobas e-411 for analyzing the hormones and tumor markers, Alere Pima for CD4 Count and for Viral Load-Genexpert are available machines. All test reports for the STI serology are released on the same day except immunology which are released the next day.

 Tests performed

 Immunology/Tumor marker testSTI/Serology Test
1TFT (FT3, FT4 and TSH)Rapid HIV test
2Beta-HCGRapid HBsAg test
3LHRapid HCV test
4FSHRapid TPHA test
5ProlactinRPR Slide method
6ProgesteroneCD4 Count (Alere Pima)
7TestosteroneHIV Confirmation (INNO-Lia HCV score)
8EstradiolHIV Viral Load (Genexpert)
9CortisolRapid Scrub typhus
10FerritinRapid Leishmania Ab (Kala Azar test)
11Total PSARapid Widal (S. Typhi)
12Free PSARapid Dengue test
15CA 15-3 
16CA 19-9 
18Serum Folate 
19Vit. B12 

6. Cytology Unit

The unit deals with cytology study for gynaecological specimens (Pap smear screening) and non-gynaecological specimen (body fluids, sputum, urine and fine needle aspiration for the lumps suspected for malignancy).

 Activities carried are:

  • HPV test and Liquid based cytology
  • Cytology specimen from FNAC
  • Cytological samples of body fluids

7. Histopathology Unit

The histopathology unit services includes grossing, sectioning, staining (routine H&E and special stains which are Fite, ZiehlNeelsen, giemsa and PAS). At the moment a pathologist, two laboratory technicians and a laboratory officer oversee the unit. The unit is well equipped with an automated tissue processor, automated stainer, embedding station, grossing station and rotary microtome. The pathologist performs the major grossing and the histo-technicians perform the minor grossing in the unit. The unit receives samples from the district hospitals in addition to those from the hospital itself. Currently the unit does not provide frozen section and immunohistochemistry (IHC) facility and hence refers the patient’s slides and blocks to JDWNRH.  

The turnaround time of the histopathological reports is one week for emergency specimen and two weeks for routine specimens.